Aug 16 2009

Guide - Configuring Standby on your HTPC

My main HTPC uses around 130 watts at idle, 7 watts in standby (S3), and 4 in hibernate (S4) so the case for having it take a nap whenever it can is quite clear.  There was a time when getting S3 standby working properly was a black art involving careful motherboard and device selection, regsitry hacks, and some pixie dust.  When Vista came out and even low-end motherboards included full standby support all of that changed; setting up your PC to properly take a nap, and wake up when you need it, is something anyone with a few minutes can do.

Aug 11 2009

Guide - Enabling Multi-Channel for Other Audio Formats

Dolby Digital  

Enabling Multi-Channel Audio for Other Audio Formats

If you're fortunate enough to have a PC with multi-channel LPCM output enabling full fidelity audio output is easy (and there's not much point in reading the rest of this) but for those using a SPDIF or stereo only HDMI connection getting multi-channel audio working can be challenging.  This guide intends to explain two different options and how to configure each to attain this goal.

Aug 10 2009

Guide - Unlock Hidden Startup Switches for Windows7 and make MCE Start Your Way

Did you know that there are more options to launching Windows Media Center in Windows 7 than just arriving at the start menu? Microsoft has tossed in a bunch of hidden switches (not sure why they're called switches) that fellow Media Center MVP and MissingRemote contributor Andrew Cherry has discovered and passed along.

The purpose of these is simple--say you absolutely hate the new startup sound and animation that the new Media Center loads with (like myself). Changing the way ehshell launches (ehshell.exe is the program name for Windows Media Center) can allow you to disable it upon startup.


Here's the full list we were able to find:


  - stops the startup sound and Windows Media Center logo "pebble" going off into the distance

 /noshutdownui  - removes the "shutdown" item from the tasks menu
 /mediamode   - starts in media only mode (no close/minimize/maximize options in top right corner)
 /widescreen   - start in widescreen mode, even on 4:3 display (windowed only)
 - display windowed mode Media Center but without the window chrome
 /playallmusic  - plays all your music instantly
 /playfavmusic  - plays all your favorite music
 /playfavslideshow  - plays your favorite slideshows only
 /playfavslideshowwithmusic  - plays your favorite slideshow with music
 /playslideshow  - plays all slideshows


 - plays all slideshows with music
  - starts the Media Center screensaver
  - starts Media Center at the "configure screensaver" screen


EDIT 8/12: If you want to start up Media Center in LiveTV, use the following (Thanks to our forum member phenomenae):

%windir%\ehome\ehshell.exe "/mcesuperbar://tv?live=true" 


How to apply?

Applying the switches is simple. You would find the Media Center shortcut under Start > All Programs > Windows Media Center, and right click on it. Select properties. Under "target" you will see "%windir%\ehome\ehshell.exe". Simply add the switches you wish Media Center to start with and hit OK.

For example, if your shortcut looked like the following:

%windir%\Ehome\Ehshell.exe /nostartupanimation /noshutdownui /mediamode

Now Media Center starts up in fullscreen without the animation, and already in media mode (no close button), and no “shutdown” icon on the tasks menu.

Jul 23 2009

Guide - How to Decrypt and Rip your Blu-ray Movies

In looking over the guides we have on this site, it came to my attention that sometimes we take for granted the technical pieces we know and overlook some critical items which would benefit readers of I happened to already have written an article on this, so it seemed to make sense to update and post here for your benefits.

As more and more Movie Manager software applications are developed it increases the necessity to have your movies stored on your system/server. Sure there's the option on MyMovies to have "offline" discs in your collection, but it's a pretty big inconvenience to find the movie you want to watch, only to be told you have to get up and go find the disc and put it in your system. Indeed, most users who utilize these movie managers will tell you that having the movies stored on a hard drive is the optimal configuration for a number of reasons. You have instant access to any movie from any HTPC or Extender connected to your network, and you can configure your own backup strategy to never have to replace a movie (read: No more scratched discs!).

With all that being said, let me preface this article by saying that the legality of this varies based on who you ask and where you are located, so proceed at your own risk. MissingRemote is not liable for anything you may do as a result of this guide...we merely want to help those that are capable of doing so. With that in mind, click Read More to continue reading...


Jul 22 2009

Guide - How to Enable Concurrent Sessions in Windows 7 RTM

In honor of Windows7 hitting the big RTM (release to manufacturing) milestone, I figured it best to start fresh with this Guide and archive the old one . The process below has been confirmed working with the release version Windows7 Ultimate AND Professional, x86 & X64 build 7600.16385. Sorry Home Premium folks, nothing for you yet as RDP is not included in that least until someone figures it out.

One of the most popular articles ever at has been our guide on how to enable Concurrent Sessions for Windows Vista.For those unaware of what it is, enabling Concurrent Sessions allows you toRemote Desktop into a system that someone else is on, under a differentuser account, and access the system without kicking the user off. I,for example, use the feature to have MCE running on my Television, andthen I remote into my main user account to access all my files withoutinterrupting my MCE session. All kudos go out to the original folks at WinMatrix forums (ShipIt, Pinobigbird, untermensch & Cocoa) who posted the instructions and files to edit the files as needed to work properly. Without them we would never have gotten this far!


 Continue Reading...

May 31 2009

Guide - Using EventGhost to Integrate a 3rd Party App with Your Front End


EventGhost Logo

Most people in the HTPC community have a preferred media center application that handles 80% to 90% of the capabilities desired. Unfortunately, integrating an outside application to add functionality to your main front end and get to 100% seamless integration is not always easy. This is where automation tools can help. Automation tools are a class of software applications that can interperet inputs from many different sources, and then pass commands along to many other devices and applications. Let's look at how we can use automation tools to perfect the HTPC experience.

Girder is probably the most well known automation tool and it is well documented, with a large support community but runs $50 for the standard version. In hopes of avoiding the cost of Girder, I am going to look at using EventGhost (free as in beer) to smoothly integrate Blu-ray playback software with my media center front end. The goal is to be able to perform all actions with my remote control and seamlessly switch back and forth between applications, the same as if the third party application was integrated directly with the media center software. This write-up will use SageTV and Cyberlink PowerDVD 9 for the demonstartion, but hopefully the article will demonstrate how to do the same for any other media center front end and third party application. As I develop more EventGhost control files I will add them to the guide, giving you a starting point for your own integration.



May 28 2009

Guide - How to Integrate Hulu Desktop to Media Center

UPDATE 8/20/2009: This guide has been confirmed working on Windows 7 and will place the shortcut to Hulu in your Extras Library. Click the Comments post for user tips on getting the icon on your start menu.


If this article sounds familiar, it's because I have previously written a similar article on integrating Boxee into Media Center . With the announcement of Hulu Desktop, a lot of people will be interested in merging their Media Center world with this new application.

This is by no means the only way to do this, but it gives you ultimate control. If you want a simple drag and drop experience, I would highly recommend MC Menu Mender which allows you to create custom entry points within Media Center.




As with last time, there are some detailed instructions you should follow, but this time there is a bit more tweaking necessary, so please pay attention. ALSO, I have 2 icons enclosed in the attached ZIP--one is a logo with transparent background, and the other (default) is the one shown above with the Black. If you prefer the clear one, simply delete the "icon.png" and rename the "iconwhite.png" to it.

Note, the following steps assume you installed into the default Hulu directory, which is C:\Users\YOURUSERNAME\AppData\Local\HuluDesktop. If you changed the directory, simply replace the directories in the ini and xml files.

  1. Download the file attached below (login required)
  2. Unzip the folder into your Hulu directory (which default is C:\Users\USERNAME\AppData\Local\HuluDesktop\)
  3. The files should result in a HuluMCE folder (C:\Users\USERNAME\AppData\Local\HuluDesktop\HuluMCE).
  4. IMPORTANT STEP: Browse to the above HuluMCE folder, and Right Click on the HuluMCEreg.xml file and select EDIT
    1. Replace the username "Mike" from the following line with YOUR USERNAME:  imageUrl="C:\Users\Mike\AppData\Local\HuluDesktop\HuluMCE\icon.png"
  5. Still in the above folder, right click on the InstallHulu.cmd and select Run as Administrator
  6. A dialog box will appear with the message Success 
  7. Close all your windows, launch Media Center with your remote, and the shortcut for Hulu Desktop will appear under the TV+Movies row, as well as in the Program Library
*NOTE: If you prefer to have the shortcut appear in the TV+Movies row, you will need to edit the HuluMCEreg.xml file (Right click > Edit). On the line which says  <category category="Services\TV"/>, replace TV with Pictures. (eg., <category category="Services\Pictures"/> You can visit the following MSDN Webpage for a full list of category entrypoints you can launch from.

And that's all! If you want to remove the icons, simply Run the "UninstallHulu.cmd" as Administrator and then re-launch MCE.


EDIT 5/28: Another option for you MCE users, Yaggs (creator of has created an app to basically do all the above legwork. Check it out at his website


Feb 05 2009

Guide - Black Magic Antennas

With the analog to digital conversion coming in one month, many people who generally get most of their TV from Over The Air sources tend to question if their current antenna setup will be able to receive the new digital broadcasts.  Today we will be demystifying the Black Magic that is antennas and how they work.


Jan 25 2009

Guide - How-To: Integrate BoxeeTV for Windows into Vista Media Center

With the introduction of BoxeeTV for Windows we now have another very potent player in the home theater world. But what is a current Vista Media Center user to do--on the one hand, they use Media Center for all their live and recorded TV...but on the other, they would love to be able to access all the wonderful internet television portals which Boxee brings to the 10'. The answer for me was simple--use both! With BoxeeTV integrated, I could still use Media Center to watch LiveTV and schedule recordings, but then if I miss a recording or simply want to play around the plethora of internet portals, Boxee would allow me to do, all with a single remote.

With some help from this blog , the steps walk through how to register an application for access from within Vista Windows Media Center. What this allows is using Media Center as my main central home theater application, but then easily launch BoxeeTV from my remote from within Media Center. Alternatively, a user in the Boxee forums also mentioned some success using MC Menu Mender to create the entry point that way. Neither of these were acceptable solutions for me however.

Digg It


Jan 23 2009

Guide - How to Enable Concurrent Sessions in Windows 7


Guide Updated: May 2, 2009 - Included support for 7100 RC Build of Windows7

One of the most popular articles ever at has been our guide on how to enable Concurrent Sessions for Windows Vista. For those unaware of what it is, Concurrent Sessions allows you to Remote Desktop into a system that someone else is on, under a different user account, and access the system without kicking the user off. I, for example, use the feature to have MCE running on my Television, and then I remote into my main user account to access all my files without interrupting my MCE session.




All kudos go out to the fellas who made this possible so quickly--Pinobigbird, untermensch and cocoa. Way to go! Hopefully they can maintain an update if the release of Win7 changes things. As of May 2nd, the guy to thank is ShipIt, who posted his file originally at . Thanks to all who continue to support this amazing feature!!



The following files and instructions are provided to you at your OWN RISK!! Understand that it is replacing important files, and as always, anything can happen. That being said, if you do have a problem, we have a fantastic community here to help you




First, you will need to download the appropriate files which have been conveniently wrapped together by the aforementioned folks. For your convenience, I've re-compressed the files into a zip folder available for Download The File Below (login required).

EDIT 5/2/09: If you are using RC Build of Windows7 (Build 7100), use "Win7RDP/" available below (login required)


Once downloaded, extract that file into a directory. Right click on the Install.cmd file and select Run As Administrator


 If you executed the command successfully, you should see this screen.


As of now, this has been tested and confirmed working on Windows 7 build 7000 that most of you probably have thanks to Microsoft, so Enjoy! If anyone gets a newer version that this does NOT work in, please let us know!



For 99.9% of folks, the above steps will be exactly what they are looking for. However, if you want to customize the abilities a bit, there are certain command strings you can run in addition. To do so, you will need to open a Command Prompt with Administrator Privileges (Start > Run > CMD > Right Click "Run As Administrator"). The other available options are: 


 Show this help
 Save as -?
 Enable multiple sessions per user
 Enable remote log on for user accounts that are not password protected


So you would change to the folder where you extracted the zip and execute the command. For example, if you wanted to Enable multiple sessions per user, you would run the following:

C:\Concurrent_RDP_Win7_Beta_7000> install -multi

Digg It

Jan 16 2009

Guide - Build Your Own Digital TV Antenna

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What you'll need:




{mospagebreak_scroll title=Test}


Jan 16 2009

Guide - Video: Programming your Logitech Harmony Remote

There has been discussion in the forums recently about how to properly setup a Harmony remote to drive all of those components sitting in your entertainment center.  Do you use the Devices?  Do you use the Activities?  Do you get up and push the buttons on the front of the devices?  Watch the video and find out!
Jan 16 2009

Guide - Choosing an antenna for your HDTV reception

In a recent article, we discussed how there is nothing special about an "HDTV" antenna.  So now the question becomes, which antenna is the right one for you?  Without going into details about specific antennas, this article will introduce you to the various types of antennas and some of their more imprtant characteristics.  We will also cover which antenna type is best for various situations.
Jan 14 2009

Guide - HTPC Basics: The Beginnings

The wonderful world of HTPC's can be very baffling to someone who has never dabbled in the confusing realm of codecs, drivers and programs. So I decided to dedicate part 2 of the HTPC basic series to helping people understand the wide world of HTPC's. I will briefly cover several topics including software, hardware, audio/video codecs and other.

 Digg It!



Jan 06 2009

Guide - HTPC Basics HArdware


Building an HTPC is similar to building a personal computer with a few caveats. Keep in mind these are just talking points to get a beginner started in the right direction.

  1. An HTPC is typically in the living room and should be silent
  2. If you want to record TV you need a TV tuner device of some sort
  3. Required CPU speed is dependent on the functions you want to perform
  4. You can never have enough hard drive space

CPU/Video card

CPU requirements depend on a few different considerations that include what type of video card you have, if you plan on using it for an extender server and if you plan on transcoding videos on the fly for placeshifting.

If you plan on only playing back media files, any modern dual core CPU paired with a video card that decodes H.264 in hardware will work for you. For more information, see Matt's article on the basics of Video Card HD processing. Check his guide out before buying a vid card but you will find that the most recent generation of video cards fully decode most formats without using the CPU.

If your box is going to be a multi-tasking monster and perform other tasks watching media files, I would recommend a higher-end dual core CPU or faster quad CPU. The Network Topology section will describe more of what you might expect in a whole-home Media Center setup.

For what its worth, my recommendation for the sweet spot is a 4550.

TV Tuner

A good resource in what TV tuner you will need for your HTPC is this guide here . it is slightly outdated and does not inlcude Hauppauge's HD PVR. As well, read Matt's ATSC/NTSC tuner guide.

Here is a quick summary of the tuners available.

Analog TV cards - These cards are able to tune standard defintion signals such as an s-video output from a cable box or satellite box, or they can tune analog cable with the onboard tuner.

Combo tuner cards - These cards have an analog tuner and digital tuner. You are able to use each tuner independently of one another. The digital tuner is able to tune QAM and ATSC (broadcast digital TV) signals.

Hybrid tuner cards - These cards have an analog and digital tuner. However, you can only use one tuner at a time. They are typically lower in price than combo cards.

Digital tuner cards - More recently companies are releasing dual tuner cards that have two digital tuners onboard. These will work with QAM signals and ATSC (broadcast digital TV).

HD PVR -Hauppauge's HD PVR, see review here, is able to encode high definition output via component cables to H.264. This allows you to use a set top box to view high definition content from any source that has component out.

CableCard Tuners - Exclusive to OEM machines sporting Vista Media Center, CableCards tuners llow full tuning of all premium HD and SD cable content minus the two way communication for PPV.


Assuming your HTPC will be a stand-alone component, simply pick a case that looks good and is quiet. Alrighty, there is a little more than that :). Here are a few things to consider.

  • How quiet are the included fans?
  • How is the airflow? Will it be sufficient to cool two tuner cards, multiple hard drives etc?
  • Does it have enough hard drive space?
  • Does it look good?
  • Micro-atx versus full ATX

Here are a few of the well know vendors.


Memory is dirt cheap. Get as much as your OS and packetbook can afford.

Dec 31 2008

Guide - MissingRemote's 2008 Stars and Flops, Year in Review

Well folks, 2008 has come and gone. And along with's continuing growth, we wanted to take the time to take a look at the things that came about in our wacky world of home theater & pc components and remember what were some great things that came out, and what are some failures that should be learned from.

So in case you've been living in a cave for 2008, or you just have short term memory loss and enjoy recaps, here you go!

There are a lot more examples after the break :). 


Arcsoft Total Media Theater

Hard to argue that a niche previously dominated by Cyberlink for so many years, has now been overthrown in a matter of months with Arcsoft. They continue to demolish the competition in features, stability and performance, while Cyberlink continues to cut features such as HD-DVD support & ability to play ripped movies.

DirecTV in MCE

One in the same as the above, maybe? No, now that we've been told DirecTV's tuner for MCE is done, dead, finito, this gets a big fat thumbs down for 2008. We went from potentially getting DirecTV inside MCE with its own tuner, to now not even a glimmer of hope.


Nov 07 2008

Guide - HTPC Basics: The EPG

The basics is a series of articles that I am going to do a regular basis to introduce readers new to the HTPC world about the features and benefits of Home Theater PCs. I guess you can compare this to the cheap free drugs before the true addiction :). The software I will be using for the articles is Vista Media Center, mainly because that is the platform I use throughout my house. When possible I will get screen captures of other programs for comparison purposes.

The first topic is the EPG otherwise known as the Electronic Programming Guide. I chose this topic to start because this is the familiar element you will want to replicate when moving from a cable or satellite set-top box \ service.

Oct 29 2008

Guide - High definition audio wiring guide

receiver.jpgSo folks you're sold on Blu-ray, and you want to connect your new Blu-ray enabled home theater PC to your killer sound system, but which way is best? what are the trade-offs? 

Let's chart the Blu-ray audio formats first so you get an idea of what formats are used on Blu-ray, which formats are mandatory, and so on. Then we'll discuss the ways to connect your HTPC's audio to your home theater. As you can guess there are pluses and minuses with each method, and some require a bit of discussion.

Sep 06 2008

Guide - An Introduction to Installing Ubuntu and Mythtv

ubuntulogo.jpgmythtv-logo.jpgFor those of you that want to get your feet wet with Linux but don't know where to start, this guide is for you.  Today I will be discussing the steps you need to go through in order to install Ubuntu Linux, based on version 8.04.1 desktop 386.  This guide will cover the steps performed to install Ubuntu, load the AMD/ATI closed souce graphics driver, get sound running, and install the Mythtv frontend.  This guide will not cover configuring the backend portion of Mythtv at this time.  So let's get started.

As always, if you have a comment or suggestion, please stop by the forums.

Jul 31 2008

Guide - SageTV 6 On CentOS 5


A while back I mentioned that I was in the process of possibly switching from MythTV to SageTV.  I want to keep the main server running Linux because I feel it is a more stable environment than Windows.  Plus, due to the low OS overhead, it allows me to continue using an older PC.  The down side to all of this is it seems there are far greater Windows SageTV users than Linux SageTV users.  As a result, just about all of the available help guides are geared toward a Windows based install.  Today, I'd like to help even things up a bit and cover the steps involved in getting a SageTV server up and running in Linux using CentOS 5.

SageTV CentOS 5 Install Guide


Jul 30 2008

Guide - Native QAM With SageTV / HDHomeRun


With the latest beta release of SageTV 6.4.6 along with a beta version of the HDHomeRun software and firmware, it is now possible to natively tune QAM channels.  This means that the artificial 68 channel limit imposed by the previous mapping method is no longer an issue.  For those with a HDHomeRun that would like to pursue native QAM tuning bliss in SageTV, read on.  Please bear in mind that this is all based on beta software at the moment, so your mileage may vary.  I would strongly encourage this testing be done on a non-production system or you may face the wrath of a plummeting WAF.

SageTV Title Pic
Jul 01 2008

Guide - Firewire Recording with your Cable Box and SageTV

This guide is a repost of my original guide over at Broken links have been updated, no other real changes have been made. This repost is brought on by a resurgence of firewire related questions in my PM box so I thought I should bring this back up and also remind people that it's 2 years old. Some improvements have been made to the process that could streamline it (ie..I think you can avoid girder). But now it's here for people that want to discuss it. The link to the drivers has been updated and now many more cable boxes aside from the Moto 6200 are supported. 

Mini-Guide (1): How to install drivers for your Firewire-enabled cable box.
This step is necessary for all other funtionality

1) Download the drivers below. Extract the drivers to somewhere you'll remember.
2) Turn off your cable box and the PC
3) Connect the firewire from the cable box to the PC
3) Turn on the cable box
4) Turn on the PC
5) When Windows XP boots it should auto-detect some new hardware. Click 'Cancel' for all of them.
6) Open Device can be found in the Control Panel -> System -> Hardware Tab -> Device Manager
7) You should now have some 'Unknown' Devices.  Double-click AV\C Tuner. Choose the 'Driver' Tab. Then select 'Install/Update Driver'.
8) This will open the Update Hardware Manager, select "Install from a specific location" and follow the steps to point it to the folder you extracted your drivers to.
9) This should successfully install the drivers for your cable box.
10) Back in 'Device Manger' right click on the other 'Unknown' Devices that appeared and Disable them. There are currently no drivers to support the functionality from them. Hopefully in the future there will be.

Mini-Guide (2): How to watch TV through your HTPC over a Firewire connection
Firewire viewing and recording requires Windows XP

1) Download VLC below. Now install the latest build of VLC that you downloaded. It may require installation or you might just need to unzip it.
2) Open VLC.
3) Goto File -> Open Capture Device
4) Click the 'Refresh List' button next to the drop down box for Video Device Name.
5) Now select your cable box from the Video Device Name drop down box.
6) Click 'OK'...Don't try to configure anything...this tends to just blue screen the computer since the drivers don't support configuration.
7) Video should start playing momentarily. You should be able to change channels on your cable box and see what options you have available to you!!!
8) Enjoy TV! Good Luck!

May 31 2008

Guide - S/PDIF FAQ

Here's an oldie but a goodie I brought over from the HTPCnews days, it's still relevant today because of the limitations of S/PDIF and the high resolution audio tracks found on the next generation formats (Blu-ray/HD DVD). So with that in mind there are some quick changes to modernize the information.

What is S/PDIF?
S/PDIF stands for Sony/Philips Digital Interface. It is a is a standard form of audio transport, S/PDIF allows the transfer of audio from the source to another piece of equipment while preserving the full quality of the audio signal. The alternative, transmitting analog and then converting back to digital at the receiver, could degrade signal quality.

S/PDIF has its roots in DAT (digital audio tape). A method of digital audio transport very similar to S/PDIF was used in recording studios. It carried the raw 2-channel stereo audio (PCM) for CD mastering.

The consumer friendly S/PDIF was born for use with Audio CD players as a way to send the digital PCM stereo in a pure digital state to a high-end stereo setup.

Later on manufacturers found that they could send more then 2-channels if they sent a compressed stream of audio, like Dolby Digital (AC3), down the S/PDIF connection. To a device it appears as if it is just passing PCM audio, but to a receiver at the other end that has Dolby Digital technology it will detect the compressed bitstream and start decoding it into multi-channel surround sound information. Later the DTS format was added as an optional format that could be sent. This is called "S/PDIF Passthrough" or "Bitstreaming."

What physical forms does one find S/PDIF?
There are two phyical layer standards for S/PDIF: Coax (75ohm RCA) and Optical (TOSlink). Many sound cards have a mini-jack on the back that does multiple functions including digital output. These are essentially coax S/PDIF connectors in mini-jack format. Quite often all that is needed is a mono mini-jack to RCA adapter to use it with a receiver.

What are the benefits of using S/PDIF?
Using S/PDIF has three main benefits:
1. You get a pure digital connection from your PC to your home theater surround sound receiver.
2. You can send the surround sound from HDTV and DVD (i.e.: Dolby Digital (AC3) and DTS) straight to your home theater surround sound receiver. No software decoding needed.
3. Your receiver has much better electrical components, DACs, etc. than a typical sound card. So it is in your interest to hand off the audio to your home theater.

What are the limitations of using S/PDIF?
Typically sound out the S/PDIF for anything that is not pre-encoded in AC3/DTS will not be multi-channel. Any other type of audio will be a raw 2-channel PCM output. This means that 3D sound from games (EAX, DS3D), 5.1 sound from WMV-HD files, any advanced audio formats [such as Dolby TrueHD] or multi-channel (5.1/7.1) LPCM sound tracks from Blu-ray/HD DVD discs will all be downsampled to stereo when sent via S/PDIF.

What can I do about the limitation?

There are a few ways to deal with the limitation:

The first method is just fine for handling gaming and other miscellaneous audio formats that aren't in need of super high resolution output -- 

Dolby Labs has a real-time encoding technique that can take common audio formats, including 3D sound from games, and encode into a Dolby Digital signal. This technology is known as a "Dolby Digital Live". This ability can be found in either a discrete sound card or in select motherboard audio chipsets.

The software implimentation of Dolby Digital Live is available with select Intel branded motherboards as part of Intel's Dolby Control Center suite. There are quite a few stand alone sound cards with Dolby Digital Live these include AuzenTech's product line, Diamond XS71DDL, ASUS Xonar family, HT Omega Claro and Striker, Razer Barracuda, bluegears b-Enspirer 7.1, and a few others.

Not to be out done DTS now has their own take on real-time encoding called "DTS Interactive", part of the "DTS Connect" suite of technologies. AuzenTech, the same people who brought us the first Dolby Digital Live sound card that addd DTS Interactive support called the X-Plosion 7.1 DTS Connect, also the ASUS Xonar D2, HT Omega Claro and Striker, bluegears b-Enspirer 7.1. Also the Gigabyte GA-MA78GM-S2H AMD 780G motherboard includes supports for DTS Connect.

The second method is more versatile and future proof, which is to switch to HDMI for your sound input and to invest in a new motherboard or video card that can properly pass 8-channel (7.1) LPCM over HDMI. These are rare but coming. Intel's G35 and G45 IGPs can do it, so can NVIDIA's GeForce 8200 IGP. For discrete add-in graphics cards AMD/ATI's Radeon HD 4000 series also has a proper 8-channel implementation. To date none of NVIDIA's add-in cards support full HDMI audio, they simply passthrough S/PDIF to HDMI.

May 06 2008

Guide - GRUB on USB


I was recently looking at my development system and wanted to load Windows as a boot option to a system primarily running Linux.  This got me to thinking.  What if I did something that corrupted or overwrote the boot sector on my hard drive?  What if I could no longer boot into Linux as I had intended?  What if I just want to have an entire Linux installation on my USB drive?  Enter GRUB, a Linux boot loader.

Read more... 



The GRand Unified Boot loader, or GRUB, has all but replaced LInux LOader, or LILO as the default boot loader for most Linux distributions today.  The boot loader is what hands off control of the system from BIOS Power On Self Test, or POST, to the Operating System.  In this guide, we will be creating a boot loader on a USB flash drive that loads Linux kernels that reside on your primary hard drive.  Of course you are free to add whatever utilities or Operating Systems that you would like and have licenses for.  Some ideas would be virus scanners or system utilities.  It is also possible to load an entire operating system on the flash drive, but that is outside the scope of this guide (but might be seen in the future).

This guide assumes that you have a Linux distribution loaded on your system already with GRUB as the boot loader.  There are probably other ways to get GRUB onto your USB flash drive but they will not be covered in this guide.  Also, installation of a Linux OS will not be covered, but you can follow John's great CentOS installation guide to get to this point.


The Parts 

So lets get started.  Here's what you will need:

  • USB flash drive
  • A system that can boot from USB
  • A system with Linux loaded using GRUB
  • some time
  • this guide


Finding The USB Flash Drive 

The first thing that you will need to do is boot into Linux as you would normally.  At this point, you should connect the USB flash drive if it is not already connected.  On my system, the USB flash drive itself showed up as /dev/sdc with the single partition under /dev/sdc1.  It shows up as /dev/sdc because my other two hard drives are /dev/sda and /dev/sdb.  When the drive is inserted into the USB port, the data itself is mounted under /media/disk.  The directory name may be different for your system, but will likely be found under /media/<something>.  To find out for certain where your drive is mounted use the following command:

$ df
Filesystem           1K-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda1               101086     19138     76729  20% /boot
/dev/sdb1             57483476   4784692  49731644   9% /
/dev/sdc1                63838       234     63604   1% /media/disk

This shows that /dev/sdc1 is 63,838 1k-blocks in size (64MB) and is mounted at /media/disk.  The commands in this guide assume that the drive is mounted at /media/disk from now on.

If the drive does not mount automatically, you can accomplish this by running the following commands:

$ mkdir /media/disk
$ mount /dev/sdc1 /media/disk 

The first command creates the /media/disk directory and the second command mounts the drive.  This guide will assume that it is mounted under /media/disk.  Also note that all commands beginning with $ are issued by the regular user, while commands starting with # are issued by root.  


USB Flash Drive Files And Directories 

The next step is to create the directory structure on the USB flash drive and copy the needed files to it.  On my installation, the Linux kernels and images under /boot and the GRUB files under /boot/grub.  So lets make the necessary directories on our drive.  Note that you will need to change the directory name to match the path to your USB drive.  Also, you can create a different directory structure but you will have to make sure that the correct path is used later on for files like menu.lst.  For ease of use, I suggest using the indicated file structure.  It is also important later to know that on my installation, the /boot directory is on a separate partition from the / directory.

$ mkdir /media/disk/boot
$ mkdir /media/disk/boot/grub

Now that we have that done, lets copy over the files that we need.  In order to copy over grub.conf and menu.lst, you will need to be root.

$ su -
# cp /boot/grub/* /media/disk/boot/grub/

The su - command changes you to SuperUser, or root, so that you can copy the necessary files.  The next command does the actual copying.  Again, if you used a different directory structure or your USB flash drive is mounted at a different location, you will have to adjust all of the commands accordingly.



Now that you have the necessary files in place it's time to install GRUB into the Master Boot Record of the USB flash drive.  First let's make sure we're loading GRUB onto the the correct drive.

# grub
grub> find /boot/grub/stage1
grub> find /grub/stage1

As stated earlier, in my installation, the /boot directory is on its own partition.  This is what causes (hd0,0) to show up under the second find command while (hd2,0) shows up under the first find command.  If the /boot directory were included in the root (/) partition then it would have been included in the first find command.  So enough confusion.  (hd2,0) means that the /boot/grub/stage1 file is located on the first partition of the third hard drive (numbering starts at 0).  In this case this is referring to the main partition of the USB flash drive.  (hd0,0) is referring to the /boot partition on my main hard drive.

So now we know that we want to load GRUB on (hd2,0).  There are three basic commands needed to do this: root, setup and quit.

grub> root (hd2,0)
 Filesystem type is fat, partition is 0x6
grub> setup (hd2)
 Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... yes
 Checking if "/boot/grub/stage2" exists... yes
 Checking if "/boot/grub/fat_stage1_5" exists... yes
 Running "embed /boot/grub/fat_stage1_5 (hd2)"...  16 sectors are embedded.
 Running "install /boot/grub/stage1 (hd2) (hd2)1+16 p (hd2,0)/boot/grub/stage2
/boot/grub/grub.conf"... succeeded
grub> quit

The first command, root (hd2,0) , sets the "root device" in GRUB to the partition on the USB flash drive containing the boot directory.  In our example, this is (hd2,0) meaning it is the first partition on the third "hard drive", or sdc1.  The setup (hd2) command installs the GRUB boot loader into the Master Boot Record (MBR) of the drive.  If you do not want it loaded in the MBR but would instead like it in a specific partition, you can use the command setup (hd2,0), which will load it into the first partition (in that example).  There is a note in the GRUB documentation stating that if you load the GRUB boot loader into a partition instead of the MBR, you must chain-load GRUB from another boot loader, meaning that you have to boot up with some other boot loader in the MBR and tell it to load the GRUB boot loader from there.  That is outside the scope of this guide.



So now we have GRUB installed on our USB flash drive.  What's next?  There are two options at this point.  You can either tell the GRUB installation on your flash drive to load kernels that are installed elsewhere, such as on the original hard drive, or you can copy the kernel and initialization files to the USB flash drive and boot them locally.  We are going to boot them directly from the hard drive for two reasons: 1) it will save space on the flash drive allowing you to add other applications to boot, and 2) each time you install a new kernel on your system you will not have to copy it to the USB drive, you will just need to update the menu.lst file which will be demonstrated shortly.


Drive Ordering And Other Stuff 

In just a moment, we will set GRUB up to load the kernels that are located on our hard drive.  But first, we are going to play a little game with GRUB to change the drive ordering.  This is needed because if you change the boot order in the BIOS to include the USB flash drive before the normal hard drive, then it changes the order of the drives as far as GRUB and Linux see them also.  In my case, in a standard boot from the hard drive, my drive order is:

  • Main OS boot drive: (hd0)
  • OS data drive: (hd1)
  • USB flash drive: (hd2)

Now, when booting from the USB drive, you must change the order in the BIOS to include the USB drive first, so the order becomes:

  • USB flash drive: (hd0)
  • Main OS boot drive: (hd1)
  • OS data drive: (hd2) 

In order to keep things simple,  we will use the map command to change the order back to what it was if we weren't booting from the USB drive.  To do this, open up the /media/disk/boot/grub/menu.lst file in your favorite text editor.  Before making any modifications, my menu.lst file looks like: 

# grub.conf generated by anaconda
# Note that you do not have to rerun grub after making changes to this file
# NOTICE:  You have a /boot partition.  This means that
#          all kernel and initrd paths are relative to /boot/, eg.
#          root (hd0,0)
#          kernel /vmlinuz-version ro root=/dev/sdb1
#          initrd /initrd-version.img
title Fedora (
    root (hd0,0)
    kernel /vmlinuz- ro root=/dev/sdb1 quiet
    initrd /initrd-
title Fedora (
    root (hd0,0)
    kernel /vmlinuz- ro root=/dev/sdb1 quiet
    initrd /initrd-

On my system, the original /boot partition was located on hard drive 0, partition 0 (hd0,0).  Since we are booting off of the USB flash drive now, the drive order will change to what is mentioned above.  We will add the map command to change the order back again.  Also note that we needed to modify the kernel and initrd lines to include /boot at the beginning of the first parameter since the /boot directory is not in its own partition on the USB flash drive.  The end result should look like this:

# grub.conf generated by anaconda
# Note that you do not have to rerun grub after making changes to this file
# NOTICE:  You have a /boot partition.  This means that
#          all kernel and initrd paths are relative to /boot/, eg.
#          root (hd0,0)
#          kernel /vmlinuz-version ro root=/dev/sdb1
#          initrd /initrd-version.img
title Fedora (
    map (hd2) (hd0)
    map (hd0) (hd1)
    map (hd1) (hd2)
    root (hd0,0)
    kernel /boot/vmlinuz- ro root=/dev/sdb1 quiet
    initrd /boot/initrd-
title Fedora (
    map (hd2) (hd0)
    map (hd0) (hd1)
    map (hd1) (hd2)
    root (hd0,0)
    kernel /vmlinuz- ro root=/dev/sdb1 quiet
    initrd /initrd-



So now that we have things setup the way that we want, let's try it out.  At this point, you will need to reboot your system.  While it is booting up, you will need to enter the BIOS Setup Screen and change the boot order of the drives.  This is generally found under an Advanced BIOS setup screen.  Add USB-HDD or similar before the regular booting hard drive.  In my case, the order is CDROM, USB-HDD, hard drive.  Once this change is made, save the changes and let your system boot.  If all goes well, your USB flash drive will boot the system as though it were booting directly from the main hard drive.  If you want to be 100% certain that it is booting from the USB flash drive and not the hard drive, you can remove the hard drive from the boot order list.  I needed to do this the first time because the boot loader screen on the USB drive looked identical to the original so I had no idea that it was working correctly.  Once you have tested this, add the hard drive back to the boot sequence.  Now, whether you have the USB drive attached or not, you will be able to boot your system properly.


The End 

Congratulations, you're done.  You have now created a backup drive to boot your computer in case something were to happen to your main boot setup.  Later, we will expand on this setup with more interesting uses.

May 06 2008

Guide - HTPC Buying Guide: Audio

For some people, sound can make or break a home theater. For others, they just want to set it up, have it work and generally sound decent. Today I'm going to step through some of the critical factors in determining how to connect your Home Theater PC to your audio system. Hopefully the information will allow you to determine the right audio solution for you and whether or not you will be satisfied with onboard audio solutions or need to invest in a sound card.

Today I'll go though some of the connection possibilities to an A/V receiver, pre-processor, or amplifier. We will also briefly look at sampling rates and bit depth of audio solutions. Finally, we will wrap up with a review of surround sound scenarios and the considerations that should be addressed in each one. Click on for more.


Connections, Sampling Rates and Bit-Depth


How you plan to connect your sound card to other equipment is a driving factor in deciding whether or not to buy a sound card. Almost all motherboards sold today include connectors for a digital SPDIF-out and for analog 7.1 sound. HDMI connectors are slowly making their way onto the scene.

Digital Output (S/PDIF): If you have an A/V receiver and plan on connecting your HTPC to it the S/PDIF output on the motherboard is a great place to start. This should always be the first thing you try and will provide a baseline for any future improvements and comparisons. This connection is perfectly capable of passing Dolby Digital and DTS to your receiver for decoding and handling the needs of most users. Something I always recommend to people is to connect your motherboards' digital out to your A/V receiver, use it for a month, and see what features you feel you still need. Then research a sound card that helps you fill those gaps.

Digital Output (HDMI): Motherboards with integrated HDMI audio are starting to trickle onto the market. If you are building a new HTPC, you may want to wait a few months and see how this shapes up. Initial indications are that the solutions available this summer will properly support sending 8-channels of audio to your receiver after the audio is decoded in your software player. However, there don't seem to be any solutions yet that support bit streaming the Dolby TrueHD or DTS-HD Master Audio directly to your receiver. Hopefully, sound cards or motherboards will appear later this year to support this. Decoding these high resolution audio formats does take some CPU power and I'm sure there are some consumers that would like to offload all the work to their A/V receiver.

Analog Output: Compared to the digital out on a motherboard, the analog out is usually a poor choice. Motherboard manufacturers do not invest money in quality Digital-to-Analog Converters (DACs), good Operational Amplifiers (Op Amps), low noise capacitors or shielding of the circuitry. If you plan on connecting directly to an amplifier (or using the analog inputs on your A/V receiver) you'll likely want to purchase a sound card that improves on the motherboard in these areas. Some good suggestions for analog output sound cards are Creative X-Fi and Auzentech in the consumer space. Lynx and RME both have good offerings in the prosumer/pro space.




Sampling Rates / Bit Depth

Varying audio sources use varying sampling rates and bit depth combinations. In general you want to ensure that your sound card or motherboard's audio chip supports up to 96 kHz/24-bit audio. There are a few uses for even higher resolution, but if you are one of those users you're probably already aware of it.

Many audiophiles are concerned with preserving sampling rates, or doing very high quality resampling. This is a much bigger concern for users of XP than Vista. XP has a fairly poor quality sampler, called kmixer, that can lessen the quality of audio. Making sure that a sound card supported each and every discrete sampling rate for your audio sources was very important. This was replaced in Vista with a reportedly very high quality sampler that seems to be satisfying audio enthusiasts and doing a quality job of converting from one sampling rate to another. People have spent countless hours working on sampling issues in XP. If you're using Vista, be happy that Microsoft got this about as right as possible and just enjoy not worrying about it. If you have XP, I'd be happy to discuss this at length in the forums with anybody trying to improve quality and manage sampling rates properly.


Surround Sound Scenarios

Surround Sound

Movies: For movie playback the different connection setups support different types of output.

S/PDIF-Out: Supports Dolby Digital and DTS surround sound formats. 

HDMI: Supports all surround sound formats. (Be careful of motherboards & video cards that just tie the S/PDIF output to the audio on the HDMI port. These are not a full implementation of HDMI audio and are limited to same formats noted above.)

Analog: Supports all surround sound formats.

*** Protected HD DVD and Blu-ray content is currently downsampled to 48 kHz/16-bit. However all movie tracks are already at 48 kHz, with only a select few concert titles in 96 kHz audio. There are more tracks that support 24-bit audio and these are being dithered down to 16-bit due to the restrictions. Anywhow, the audio still sounds much better than the older surround sound formats, and there seem to be few folks that can hear the difference between 48kHz/24-bit and 48kHz/16-bit so I wouldn't lose sleep over it.

Some of the surround sound technologies in common use


Music: Surround sound music is a serious PITA on the HTPC, sorry. The best option seems to be the Dolby Digital off of the video layer of a DVD-Audio disc. Sadly, the DVD-A library is much smaller than the SACD library. You just playback the DVD-A like a regular DVD in your DVD player software. Sony hasn't allowed the development of SACD drives for the PC, so you're completely out of luck there.


Gaming: Many video games use a standard called EAX by Creative Labs for creating 3D sound. If you are playing a lot of games that use the EAX standard for surround sound audio you may want to consider a sound card that supports all the varying tiers of EAX. The other major standard for creating 3D sound in video games is OpenAL. When it comes to gaming, if 3D sound is important to you, you will want to narrow your search to X-Fi based sound cards available from Creative and Auzentech or other cards that support EAX and OpenAL in the future.

S/PDIF-Out: If you want to use /SPDIF to transfer multi-channel audio from games, you'll need a sound card that has either Dolby Digital Live or DTS Connect. These sound cards will be capable of taking the audio from the game and encoding it to either Dolby Digital or DTS for transfer over S/PDIF. Otherwise you will only get 2-channel audio.

HDMI: Should be capable of transferring multi-channel audio from games just fine. (Be careful of motherboards & video cards that just tie the S/PDIF output to the audio on the HDMI port. These are not a full implementation of HDMI audio and are limited to 2-channel audio from games.)

Analog: Capable of transferring multi-channel audio from games without problems.

Some of the available PC based surround sound technologies



Prior to purchasing any sound card, you should peruse any online forums that discuss it or ask others for their impressions from using it. Drivers can make or break a sound card, and may may look perfect from a specification point of view can actually be a piece of junk when you try to take advantage of its capabilities. All too often sound cards don't get the full driver support needed for everything to function properly. 



I hope that I have been able to shed some light on some of the concerns to be thought about when purchasing a sound card or selecting an integrated motherboard chipset. Hopefully the information here will help you make a better informed purchase and select the right sound card for your needs.

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